Take a walking tour of the area!
Rachel Dangermond submitted the information below.
City Park and Bayou St. John
The intersection of Esplanade Ave. at Bayou St. John and
City Park Ave. is one of the points of higher elevation in the
city. Bayou Metairie flowed into Bayou St. John here. Bienville
is supposed to have found the Indian village of Tchou-Tchouma
in 1718 where the Esplanade Ave. bridge is now located. In the
18th and 19th centuries Bayou St. John provided an important
second water route to the city. The mouth of the bayou at
Lake Pontchartrain was protected by a fort built by the Spanish.
Ocean going vessels were able to travel as far as the present
end of the bayou. From this point goods were carried to and
from the city by portage during the 18th century along Bayou
Road. In 1805, a canal was dug, following an earlier canal by
Spanish governor Carondelet, which brought the ships to a
turning basin just behind what is now the Municipal Auditorium
at Basin St.
Statue of Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
(May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893) was a Louisiana-born
American author, civil servant, politician, inventor, and the first
prominent general for the Confederate States Army during the
American Civil War. Beauregard was trained as a civil engineer
at the United States Military Academy and served with
distinction as an engineer in the Mexican-American War.
His arguably greatest achievement was saving the city of
Petersburg, Virginia, and thus also the Confederate capital of
Richmond, from assaults by overwhelmingly superior Union
Army forces in June 1864. However, his influence over
Confederate strategy was marred by his poor professional
relationships with President Jefferson Davis and other senior
generals and officials. In April 1865, Beauregard and his
commander, General Joseph E. Johnston, convinced Davis
and the remaining cabinet members that the war needed to
end. Johnston surrendered most of the remaining armies of
the Confederacy to Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman, including
Beauregard and his men.
Following his military career, Beauregard served as a railroad
executive and became one of the few wealthy Confederate
veterans because of his role in promoting the Louisiana
Lottery. Today he is commonly referred to as P.G.T.
Beauregard, but during the war he rarely used his first name
and signed correspondence as G.T. Beauregard. Nicknames
were The Little Creole, The Little Napoleon, Bory, Felix
Place of birth: St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana ontreras”
sugar-cane plantation in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana,
about 20 miles (32 km) outside New Orleans, to a white
Creole family, the third child of Jacques Toutant-Beauregard
and Helene Judith de Reggio Toutant-Beauregard. He had
three brothers and three sisters. Beauregard attended
New Orleans schools and then went to a “French school” in
New York City. It was during his four years in New York,
beginning at age 12 that he first learned to speak English.
He trained at the United States Military Academy at West
Point, New York. One of his instructors was Robert Anderson,
who would later become the commander of Fort Sumter and
surrender to Beauregard at the start of the Civil War.
In 1841, Beauregard married Marie Laure Villeré, the daughter
of Jules Villeré, a sugar planter in Plaquemines Parish and a member
of one of the most prominent Creole families in
Marie was a paternal granddaughter of Jacques Villeré, the
second governor of Louisiana. The couple had three children: René,
Henri, and Laure. Marie died in March 1850, while giving
birth to Laure.
Ten years later, the widower Beauregard married Caroline Deslonde,
the daughter of André Deslonde, a sugar planter
from St. James Parish. Caroline was a sister-in-law of John
Slidell, a U.S. senator from Louisiana and later a Confederate diplomat.
She died in Union-occupied New Orleans in March
1864. They had no children together.
On first meeting, most people were struck by [Beauregard’s] “foreign”
appearance. His skin was smooth and olive-
complexioned. His eyes, half-lidded, were dark, with a trace
of Gallic melancholy about them.
His hair was black (though by 1860 he maintained this hue
with dye). He was strikingly handsome and enjoyed the
attentions of women, but probably not excessively or illicitly.
He sported a dark mustache and goatee, and he rather
resembled Napoleon III, then ruler of France—although he
often saw himself in the mold of the more celebrated
Place of death: New Orleans, Louisiana and was buried in the Tomb
of the Army of Tennessee, Metairie Cemetery, New Orleans
City Park is a beautiful and well maintained
urban park, the largest in the city and fifth largest municipal
park in the United States and, at this writing, is reported to
be one of the safest. In 1854, the first section of the park
was acquired by the city. This tract of land, fronting on
Bayou St. John and present City Park Ave., was part of the
Allard Plantation. The first improvements to the park were
made in the 1890’s. The park is laced with lagoons (the
lagoons along City Park Ave. are part of old Bayou Metairie,
seven miles of them which contain bass and bream), and
trees typical of the region such as magnolias and live oaks
(the dueling oaks are named for the duels that were supposed
to have taken place from 1804 to 1830).
The amusement park area has a fine old carousel dating from
1904. The Casino, dating from about 1914
is the center for information, rentals, and refreshments
(domed band shell and Beaux Art style pavilion were built in
the 30’s). The park has three 18-hole golf courses. Major restorations
and all of the paving of roadways, construction of bridges, drainage
and other improvements in a large area of the park were done under
WPA in the late 30’s.
copy of the Pitot Housec. 1940
800 Moss Street
A modern Pitot House (see 1440 Moss Street) facsimile. One
of the original Pitot House mantels still survives in the newer residence.
Louis Blanc Housec. 1798
924 Moss Street
Formerly the plantation and home Louis Antonio Blanc. The
second story gallery has slender colonnettes and the French window, jalousies and steep roof are characteristic of
Louisiana colonial plantation houses; similar to Parlange
and Homeplace Plantations elsewhere in the state.
Spanish Custom Housec. 1784
1300 Moss Street
A small-scale typical Louisiana Plantation hose. Various
reasons have been given for the name of the so-called
“Custom House” although there is no real tradition that it
ever functioned in this manner. Probably built for Don
Santiago Lloreins when the land formed part of his
Evariste Blanc House
(Holy Rosary Rectory)
1342 Moss Street
Some Greek Revival alterations have been made in this
Bayou St. John plantation house, although evidence of an
earlier style including slender colonnettes and round arched
doors, is plainly visible.
Cabrini High School1964 – 1965
1400 Moss Street
1347 Moss Street
Mid-19th century, possibly constructed as a residence
for the attorney Christoval Morel in the late 1840’s after
he purchased a large tract of land on the Bayou St. John
in 1847. The house served as New Orleans’ first Fencing
Club in the 1880’s and one time as a rowing club. From
1935 until her death the house served as the home of Dr.
Elizabeth Wisner, an original member of the faculty and later
the dean of the School of Social Work at Tulane University.
Christoval Morel’s father, Pierre L. Morel dueled under the
oaks in City Park while his wife (Victorine de Armas) was
pregnant with Christoval. The Duelling Oaks in City Park
have seen some of the most colorful scenes in New Orleans’ history.
For years sword clanged against sword and bullets streaked between
the ancient trees.
An article in the Times-Democrat, March 13, 1892, said,
“Blood has been shed under the old cathedral aisles of
nature. Between 1834 and 1844 scarcely a day passed
without duels being fought at the Oaks. Why, it would not be strange
if the very violets blossomed red of this soaked grass!
The lover for his mistress, the gentleman for his honor, the courtier for
his King; what loyalty has not cried out in pistol
shot and scratch of steel! Sometimes two or three hundred
people hurried from the city to witness these human baitings.
On the occasion of one duel the spectators could stand no
more, drew their swords, and there was a general melee.”
In early Creole days more duels were fought in New Orleans
than any other American city. Creole honor was a thing of intricate delicacy,
to be offended by a word or glance. The Duelling Oaks were a favorite setting for these affaires d’honneur, with pistol, saber,
or colichemarde, a long sword with a broad forte and very
slender foible, a favorite duelling weapon since the
Creoles were expert swordsmen and often delighted in any
and every opportunity to exhibit their art. Duels were fought
over real and trivial insults, were sometimes deliberately
provoked by young men anxious to display their skill. A quarrel between rival lovers,
a fancied slight, a political argument, a difference of opinion regarding an opera,
any one of these things was ample excuse for a duel under the oaks. In his
History of Louisiana, Alcee Fortier states that on one Sunday
in 1839 ten duels were fought here.
In 1855 the police began to enforce the laws against duelling,
but it continued surreptitiously for many years, despite
frequent arrests and prosecutions. Finally, however, the law
began to have some effect and there seems to have arisen a simultaneous
loss of interest in the affairs. At last the time
came when a man challenged to defend his honor with the
sword or pistol, suffered no stigma by refusing an invitation
to the Oaks. By 1890 duelling was only history.
The house is a frame one and a half story Greek Revival style structure raised
off the ground on six-foot-high piles. The large half story created by the gabled
roof is broken by two fine dormers on the Bayou St. John façade. The roof which
extends outward to form a gallery across the bayou façade
is supported by six square wooden columns resting on the
brick piers below.
The entrance façade is five bays wide with the front door
placed at the center. The façade is covered with ship-lap
siding while ordinary weatherboards cover the solid brick
exterior walls. The rear, which once contained a gallery and
two cabinets, has been converted to a kitchen/den/breakfast area.
The house is very similar to raised houses in the Bayou-
Lafourche area. However, by the 1840’s the traditional
Creole plan with no hall had been replaced with the
increasingly popular center hall plan favored by Americans.
As such, this house is an important example of two
different building styles. Morel house is a New Orleans
landmark. New Orleans Designated Landmarks
c. 1796 – 1799
1440 Moss Street (Formerly 1370 Moss Street)
In 1964 as a result of a trade with Cabrini High School
the Pitot House, threatened with demolition, was moved
about 200 feet and is now located in a corner of the
Desmare Playground. It is another fine Moss Street example
of the Louisiana plantation house on a fairly small scale.
While the upper part of the present structure is totally
original, some of the older brick columns were either re-used
or rebuilt after the move. Restored under the auspices of the
Louisiana Landmarks Society. Open Thursday 11 am – 4 pm.
Musgrove-Wilkinson Housec. 1850’s
1454 Moss Street
A large, extremely simple Greek Revival residence, with wide central
hall and plain interior mouldings.
New Orleans Museum of Art1911
1971 Additions: Stern Auditorium, Wisner Educational Wing
and City Wing – August Perez & Associates, Architects and
Arthur Feitel, Consulting Architect.
The Degas House
Courtyard & Inn 2306 Esplanade Avenue New Orleans,
Louisiana 70119 (504) 821-5009 www.degashouse.com